This post tries to explain just what goes on when you use Django’s
I will discuss what happens in your Django application, what happens at the Python Web Server Gateway Interface (WSGI) layer, and look at some examples.
This content is also available as a README with an example Django project.
So, what even is a
Most Django responses use
HttpResponse. At a high level, this means that the
body of the response is built in memory and sent to the HTTP client in a single
Here’s a short example of using
def my_view(request): message = 'Hello, there!' response = HttpResponse(message) response['Content-Length'] = len(message) return response
StreamingHttpResponse, on the other hand, is a response whose body is sent
to the client in multiple pieces, or “chunks.”
Here’s a short example of using
def hello(): yield 'Hello,' yield 'there!' def my_view(request): # NOTE: No Content-Length header! return StreamingHttpResponse(hello)
You can read more about how to use these two classes in Django’s documentation. The interesting part is what happens next — after you return the response.
When would you use a
But before we talk about what happens after you return the response, let us
digress for a moment: why would you even use a
One of the best use cases for streaming responses is to send large files, e.g. a large CSV file.
HttpResponse, you would typically load the entire file into memory
(produced dynamically or not) and then send it to the client. For a large file,
this costs memory on the server and “time to first byte” (TTFB) sent to the
StreamingHttpResponse, you can load parts of the file into memory, or
produce parts of the file dynamically, and begin sending these parts to the
client immediately. Crucially, there is no need to load the entire file
A quick note about WSGI
Now we’re approaching the part of our journey that lies just beyond most Django developers’ everyday experience of working with Django’s response classes.
Yes, we’re about to discuss the Python Web Server Gateway Interface (WSGI) specification.
So, a quick note if you aren’t familiar with WSGI. WSGI is a specification that proposes rules that web frameworks and web servers should follow in order that you, the framework user, can swap out one WSGI server (like uWSGI) for another (Gunicorn) and expect your Python web application to continue to function.
Django and WSGI
And now, back to our journey into deeper knowledge!
So, what happens after your Django view returns a
most Python web applications, the response is passed off to a WSGI server like
uWSGI or Gunicorn (AKA, Green Unicorn).
HttpResponse, Django ensures that
StreamingHttpResponse conforms to
the WSGI spec, which states this:
When called by the server, the application object must return an iterable yielding zero or more bytestrings. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways, such as by returning a list of bytestrings, or by the application being a generator function that yields bytestrings, or by the application being a class whose instances are iterable.
StreamingHttpResponse satisfies these requirements (full
@property def streaming_content(self): return map(self.make_bytes, self._iterator) # ... def __iter__(self): return self.streaming_content
You give the class a generator and it coerces the values that it produces into bytestrings.
Compare that with the approach in
HttpResponse (full source):
@content.setter def content(self, value): # ... self._container = [value] def __iter__(self): return iter(self._container)
Ah ha! An iterator with a single item. Very interesting. Now, let’s take a look at what a WSGI server does with these two different responses.
The WSGI server
Gunicorn’s synchronous worker offers a good example of what happens after Django returns a response object. The code is relatively short — here’s the important part (for our purposes):
respiter = self.wsgi(environ, resp.start_response) try: if isinstance(respiter, environ['wsgi.file_wrapper']): resp.write_file(respiter) else: for item in respiter: resp.write(item) resp.close()
Whether your response is streaming or not, Gunicorn iterates over it and writes each string the response yields. If that’s the case, then what makes your streaming response actually “stream”?
First, some conditions must be true:
- The client must be speaking HTTP/1.1 or newer
- The request method wasn’t a HEAD
- The response does not include a Content-Length header
- The response status wasn’t 204 or 304
If these conditions are true, then Gunicorn will add a
chunked header to the response, signaling to the client that the response will
stream in chunks.
In fact, Gunicorn will respond with
Transfer-Encoding: chunked even if you
HttpResponse, if those conditions are true!
To really stream a response, that is, to send it to the client in pieces, the conditions must be true, and your response needs to be an iterable with multiple items.
What does the client get?
If the streaming response worked, the client should get an HTTP 1.1 response
Transfer-Encoding: chunked header, and instead of a single piece of
content with a
Content-Length, the client should see each bytestring that
your generator/iterator yielded, sent with the length of that chunk.
Here is an example that uses the code in this repository:
(streaming_django) ❯ curl -vv --raw "http://192.168.99.100/download_csv_streaming" * Trying 192.168.99.100... * Connected to 192.168.99.100 (192.168.99.100) port 80 (#0) > GET /download_csv_streaming HTTP/1.1 > Host: 192.168.99.100 > User-Agent: curl/7.43.0 > Accept: */* > < HTTP/1.1 200 OK < Server: nginx/1.11.1 < Date: Fri, 29 Jul 2016 14:27:58 GMT < Content-Type: text/csv < Transfer-Encoding: chunked < Connection: keep-alive < X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN < Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=big.csv < f One,Two,Three f Hello,world,1 ... 10 Hello,world,99 0 * Connection #0 to host 192.168.99.100 left intact
So there you have it. We journeyed from considering when to use
HttpResponse, to an example of using the class
in your Django project, then into the dungeons of WSGI and WSGI servers, and
finally to the client’s experience. And we managed to stream a response — go